Teratogenic Effects of Heavy Metal (Arsenic) on the Developing Chick Embryos

Khadija Iqbal1 , Mirza Fahad Baig1 , Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan1

1Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Okara, 56300, Punjab, Pakistan
E-mail: zoologist330@gmail.com

Arsenic has been demonstrated to cross the mammalian placenta and harm developing embryos, according
to studies that imply it is teratogenic. The present study was tested on developing chick embryos in order to
estimate arsenic for its teratogenic and embryotoxic effects. Freshly fertilized eggs were bought from the
veterinary research institute Lahore.

A piece of cotton that had been immersed in 70% alcohol was used to
clean all 33 eggs. The average egg weight was 60g. The eggs were divided into four groups, Doses were under
care on the 4th day of incubation and embryos recovered at the 9th day of incubation. The abnormalities
observed during morphological observations were hydrocephaly, microcephaly, microphthalmia, amelia, and
agenesis of beak and limb size.

Morphometric observations also showed a significant difference in the body
parts of the treated group compared with the untreated group. Histological observations showed that some
defects in vital organs (liver and head) of chick embryos were commonly defective in the experimental groups.
It is concluded that the concentration of arsenic used during the present study is severely teratogenic and
embryotoxic in developing chicks.

Although, it can be used under high conditions in the lowest concentration,
only when the advantages outweigh the risks.
Keywords: Teratogenic, Embryotoxicity, Abnormality, Histology, Teratogenicity

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