Teratogenic Effects of (Heavy Metal) Lead on the Developing Chick Embryos

Aqsa Shafiq1 , Shakila Pirveen1 , Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan1

1Department of Zoology, University of Okara, 56300, Okara, Punjab, Pakistan
Email: shakila9297@gmail.com

Lead (heavy metal) can be found in trace levels in the crust of the planet. It may be harmful to both people
and animals’ health. Nearly all of your body’s organs and systems can be impacted by lead. It is mainly found
in smelting and mining areas.The current investigation was conducted on chick embryos to determine the
embryotoxicity and teratogenic effect of lead in them. Fertilized eggs were separated into four groups. Two
groups were treated with varying concentrations of lead as experimental groups.

One group was given distilledwater, while the fourth was left untreated and designated as the control group. The dose was administered on
the fourth day of incubation, and recovery occurred on the ninth day. Hydrocephaly, microcephaly, beak
shortening, agenesis, Amelia, micromelia, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and kyphosis were all detected in
them. Morphometric measurements with significant differences (p<0.000) and (p<0.001) in CR length, body
weight, head size, eye circumference, forelimb and hindlimb were also reported. Histological examinations
revealed various abnormalities in important organs.

Lead has been shown in various combinations to cause
embryotoxicity and teratological effects in chick embryos. As a result, it can only be administered at the lowest
feasible concentration in high-risk psychiatric circumstances where the benefits outweigh the hazards.
Key Words: Embryotoxicity, Micromelia, Anophthalmia, kyphosis, Microphthalmi

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